Peles Castle one of the most beautiful monuments in Europe
October 7, 2015 marked 132 years since the inauguration of Peles Castle, one of the most beautiful and important monuments in Europe, unique in its historical and artistic value. Peles Castle was built at the initiative of Carol I, end of ceasing vast architectural project truly sovereign until his death in 1914.
A project extended over a period of 39 years According to contemporary documents, initial plans have Peles Castle architect Wilhelm von Doderer entrusted (1825-1900), professor at the Technische Hochschule in Vienna. Doderer submitted three proposals sovereign architectural architecture inspired by the French Renaissance castles of the Loire Valley and Vienna Ringstrasse style buildings. Projects are rejected by Charles I in 1876, and management is entrusted to the work of the German architect Johannes Schultz. Swiss chalet-looking building consisting of two floors proposed by Schultz were decorated German-style exterior. Interestingly, although it was inaugurated a few years later, on 7 October 1883 became the summer residence of the Royal Family (Carol I and Elisabeth were at Peles from May to November) and an important administrative, cultural and political Planning vast project which means Peles Castle ceased truly sovereign until his death in 1914, ie 39 years after the cornerstone. It is also, as it can be admired today. In 1894, the management of works is called the Czech architect Karel Liman (1860-1928). Under his leadership, between 1895-1897 are furnished upstairs chapel of Queen Elizabeth, Princesses of Wied and apartments on the north side of Hohenzollern and mezzanine. Between 1903 – 1906, Liman design gallery marble hall, small hall music and bath Queen and arranged rooms at the II correspondent first attic: Mrs. Mavrogheni the great lady of the palace and apartments guests wing north of the castle.
Between 1906-1914, are undertaken the preparation of the terraces. In 1906 the castle is high central tower with a height of 66 meters, where a year later was mounted clock with three dials, creative factory tower clocks royal court of Bavaria, Johann Mannhardt. However, they feature old music hall, Florentine Room and the Hall of Columns, ranked first chess chambers and royal living room is extended. Upstairs, on the north wing, built apartment prime minister. Between 1905 – 1906, are designed vast Imperial Suite, consisting of large lounge, lounge, bedroom, Budoir, bathroom and living room and apartment valet of Prince Ferdinand – Maria. In 1906, changes occur in the theater hall on the ground floor. Also now, film screening room is adapted by arranging the projection booth. Cinematographic equipment was modernized in 1939, the Concordia Society in Bucharest, at the behest of King Charles II. Between 1908 – 1911, it completed construction of halls arms as decoration Hall Florentine architect Karel Liman and the plans of Tiersch Ferdinand, the latter, adviser to King King Ludwig II of Bavaria.
Between 1908 – 1911, it completed construction of halls arms as decoration Hall Florentine architect Karel Liman and the plans of Tiersch Ferdinand, the latter, adviser to King King Ludwig II of Bavaria. Between 1907 and 1911, it is decorated hall of honor on the site of the two patios, the main reception hall of the castle. The lobby is decorated in German Renaissance style, with subtle accents Baroque by Bernhard Ludwig Vienna, working closely with the architect Liman. The inspiration of the hall is the hall of the Palace Fredenhagen Lübeck Chamber of Commerce. In parallel, they are built on the ground floor, chess room and billiard room, continuing Moorish Hall. Finally, between the years 1911-1914 is decorated with busts of Roman emperors terrace and south-east wing is designed by architect Liman hall councils and decorator Viennese Bernhard Ludwig.
Poiana and the castle were built platform by partial dislocation of the mountain areas Molomoţ level to obtain land for construction of slopes, path and terrace. Using an aerial ropeway were transported more than 20,000 cubic meters of earth. The construction materials are mostly of Romanian origin: the brickwork is done with gravel from the river Prahova, stone extracted from quarries in Piatra Arsa and Great Meadow, green stone brought from Slanic wood from the surrounding forests and bricks were baked on site. Also, masons and carpenters were Romanian craftsmen.
In 1883, the year of the inauguration, the castle was equipped with hydrants installed by the company Thiergärtner Mainz are still functional. In 1884 it installed power grid, featuring a castle own generator, the first electrified castle in Europe, and in 1897 built the power plant. Among modern technologies from Peles also include elevator, glass ceiling of the Hall of Honor mobile and vacuum central dust, and he currently operational. The 2,000 characters carved paneled hall of honor were made by 140 artists who have worked for six months, day and night. The construction, decoration and furnishing reached the Hall of Honor in 1911, 1 million lei-gold and half. In the prewar period, gold lion-equivalent to $ 12 in value when the dollar. The amounts advanced for the construction of Peles era were over 16.5 million lei-gold, the king’s own funds, which sold an estate in Germany in order to pay the costs of land and building lifting. A controversy over the castle and the use of public funds, an idea promoted by the communist regime.
The castle has 160 rooms, of which 30 bathrooms. Peles hosts over 60,000 works of art belonging to the Romanian national cultural heritage. They considered several collections: there is the collection of weapons, the most valuable in the country, number and intrinsic value of objects, the collection of furniture, the decorative arts, fine art collection, stained glass, textiles and exterior decorations stone, marble and ceramics (statues and bas-reliefs on the terraces). One of the most important collections is hand-carved wooden decorations are presented in an impeccable condition. In workshops abroad famous, Austria and Germany, and it is unknown which makes woodworking secret that after a hundred years, to be in such good condition. Besides the castle were built Pelisor (for Ferdinand and Maria), Body Guards, Economatul House Hunting Arbour, stables, power plants and Villa Şipot. By the end of the castle in 1883, King Carol I and Queen Elizabeth lived at the Sinaia Monastery and House Hunting, finished ahead of the castle.
The last big event, Peles Semicentenary After 1914, the Peles Castle, which can be visited from the time of King Charles I, has exercised the function of representation and museum, but without the lived six months a year, as sovereign founder used. By 1947, space becomes auditorium for hosting official visits or military ceremonies. The most important event at Sinaia and Peles Castle hosted by King Michael’s abdication in December 1947 was linked to the castle semi-centennial celebration in 1933 by King Charles II (1930-1940). The Peles was born in 1893, the future King Charles II (1930-1940), the first king of the dynasty born on Romanian soil and the first baptized in the Orthodox religion. In 1921, the Arbour was born his son, Michael I. In 1921, it takes place at Peles, the wedding of Princess Ileana, one of his sisters Carol II.
Peles Castle functioned as a museum since the time of Charles I. King Michael’s abdication in 1948, Peles castle was confiscated by the communist authorities, was declared a museum in 1953. Later, during 1975-1990, the castle will be closed to the public. Currently, according to the Memorandum of Understanding signed between the representatives of the Royal House of Romania and the Ministry of Culture, on 1 March 2007, the buildings Peles and Pelisor were returned to the Romanian royal family, and the movable part of the national heritage and were not subject to restitution . The Royal Family has leased two buildings State serving as museums administered by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage
Personalities who visited Peles Castle Among the most prominent guests at the time of Charles I, he was the Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary, in 1896, during which it renewed the Triple Alliance treaty with Romania even castle. In 1906 expect another visit to the king on the occasion of the 40 year reign of King Charles I. On this occasion the castle was arranged imperial suite, which cost 100,000 lei amount of gold, but Franz Joseph’s visit It never took place. Guest shall Carol I and Prince Alexander of Battenberg Peles, Bulgarian Tsar Ferdinand, successor of Alexander, King Gustav of Sweden, the Netherlands and queens Ema Maria Theresa of Bavaria. The Peles wine and feast arhiducii Rudolf and Stephanie von Habsburg in 1884 as Franz Ferdinand of Habsburg, in 1909, the year that comes to Peles and Kronprintul Wilhelm of Germany. Istanbul comes Iussuf Izzedin, Crown Prince of the Ottoman Empire. Romanian royal family is on display at the Grand Duke Boris Peles Russia, the Duke of Edinborough Alfred, Charlotte and Bernhard III of Saxony-Meiningen and many other relatives of the Romanian royal family. Also at Peles are hosted many cultural manifestations invitation from the Queen, especially at concerts (almost daily sustained by the rule of Queen piano G. Enescu, violin and cello Dinicu-). The poet Alecsandri was a favorite of Queen and one of the most valuable advisers. Princess Mary met at concerts Queen personalities like Sarah Bernhardt, Catullus Mendes, Sarasate, Hubermann, French writer Pierre Loti etc. During Nicolae Ceausescu, Gerald Ford, US president on a visit to Romania, hosts organized a visit to Peles. Twice, here was received and feasted “Bulgarian counterpart” Todor Zhivkov, and the third time was feasts German leader Erich Honecker East. Since 1982, the former summer residence of kings has not been used at all. Currently, Peles Castle is visited annually by thousands of tourists from home and abroad, not less than 7.6 million in 1990 and to date.